Students:2009/2010 student themes
Please write your introductory paragraph directly under your name.
Your work (collaborative in later stages ) will be focused on the Globalisation process and risks associated with it (not only global risks, but also those that you face in your everyday life). So the introductory paragraph should introduce the theme of Global risk society somehow; it could anticipate your future theme if you have already decided what it will be. Please keep in mind that you should coordinate your work so that the final product is homogenous; those who will take the lead in choosing the theme will have an advantage!
After you have decided on the title of your essay, you can write it in brackets: ]] [[ in reverse order (My new theme XY). Thus, you will start a new page - and you can continue your writing there.
List of possible sub-themes for the Global Risk Society theme
List of questions for Jana Hybášková - Top 10 selection
Jule Kathinka Plawitzki
The text focuses on biodiversity as a global environmental risk. To understand the correlation between loss of biodiversity and globalization a short definition about biodiversity in general is given, furthermore causes for reduction are presented. In a third step these causes are related to globalization. Finally there is a prospect if even a further globalization is necessary to contain the reduction of biodiversity as an example and global environmental risks in general.
Globalisation is the worldwide disappearance of ideological, political, scientifical and technological boundaries. It is not an entirely new event but a historical process, which however has gained enormous momentum in the last decades. Within this process peoples and nations come closer together, enabling a free flow of capital and economic exchange. Billions of people around the world can profit from this with the chances of improved working and living conditions. Emerging countries like India, China and Brazil are made into economic centers of gravity as a consequence, relinquishing their old image as cheap producers and transforming it into that of serious industrial providers.
The free flow of capital and an absence of an economic „global order“, however, makes problems inevitable as the current economic crisis is showing clearly. Also the old economic giants in Europe and the US are challenged by an additional and ever more skilled and educated workforce of 2 billion people that before had lived beside the world economy, creating a „War for Talents“ and defying the shrinking populations of the western world.
The inevitable interdependence and cause of severe concern created by the process of globalisation, however, becomes highly apparent in the field of energy supply. The International Energy Agency (IEA) suggests that with a world population of then 8,5 million people energy demand will double by 2030 ([]). In 2005 the Hamburger Weltwirtschaftsinstitut (HWI) presented a study by which the future demand for oil grows by 1.7 % annually and the demand for gas by a whopping 2.4% a year should global economies retain their growth rates. Whether or not the reserve ranges in that study (42 and 63 years respectively) are accurate it is probable that both will lose their profitability within this century.
This presents the world with wide ranging questions and challenges on which paths are to be taken in order to guarantee a secure and cheap energy supply. The following article will analyse some current trends, especially in the field of electricity production, and the question on how the growing demand will be met.
Globalisation contains a lot of different fields. One part is the process of word wide interaction and linking up between people, companies and nations. The interaction increases especially in the field of politic, economy, culture, environment and communication. This interaction effects individuals in the same way as institutions ore societies.
A big topic of globalisation is the environment, the sustainable management of limited recourses. I will focus especially on the supply of water. The secure supply of portable water of high quality is the condition for life on earth. Politicians as Boutros Ghali prophesised the war on water already in 1885. Others believe that in the 21.century water will takeover the interest that oil had the 20. century.
Big parts of the world population still do not have access to healthy water. This water shortage will highly increase in the next years and wound stay a regional problem of developing countries. Water covers 75 % of the surface of the earth, but just 2,6 % of this water is freshwater and 0,6 % is usable, the rest is contained in the ice of glaciers or part of the eternal snow. The water deposit on earth is unchangeable but the regeneration cycle of water takes several of hundreds of years. Through water pollution and other reasons as highly usage of water in the agriculture sector and the unequal distribution of goods in general this water shortage will be one of the biggest problems to be solved in the next years, to secure human living. With complex and costly methods attempts are made to compensate the approaching shortage. For example plans are made for river-linking in Spain, or the construction of pipelines from Canada to California.
An other problem is the privatisation of the public water supply, caused through financial straits. Private investors have the chance to control the water supply and gain power over the formation of price and this will cause the widen of the gap between rich and poor. The process of privatisation in the last years always was a process of loosing codetermination of the population too. The interests of big companies were more important than civil rights.
To solve the upcoming water problem the whole world has to work together to pursuit the goal of a world wide and equal water supply.
Loewe,Jens: Das Wasser Syndikat.Dornach 2007 http://www.unesco.org/water/
Quite a controversial topic frequently discussed in last years is the position of Islam and Islamists within the European society. The fact is that Europe has not yet been able to deal with this issue in a satisfactory manner and its importance is rising. The number of European inhabitants who profess this religion has been increasing rapidly. Public opinion remains divided on this trend. Considerable part of the citizens and even some intellectuals describe this situation in a very negative way, they find accepting these different people as spoiling our culture and speak about a danger or threat. With regard to the cultural heritage some voices talk about, professor Sami Zemni stresses the necessity of defining our European identity, thus what exactly is to be preserved, since a specific demarcating is very difficult. In the terms of their non-supporters, Islamists mostly deserve to be isolated (most of the Muslim immigrants live at the edges of cities in ghettos) because they are neither able nor willing to assimilate. The question is whether this lack of mutual understanding is entirely their fault. If they do not imitate our habits and mentality, they are often perceived as less developed intruders without any right to make demands and should not be treated as equal. Because of this xenophobia and prejudice, immigrants feel deceived and come back to their roots disappointed, disgusted and less disposed to adapt than ever before. All the declared ideals of religious liberty, respect for all human beings etc. look like a shifty lie to them. That is why many academics speak of a great challenge for our democracy emphasizing the need of integration and tolerance. According to Savage: “Even though they (Muslims) may be third-generation citizens, they often are not viewed as fellow citizens by the general public but are still identified as foreigners and immigrants instead”.
How is the individual to be defined in a globalized world? The article discusses the role of society and how determinates are changing. Where do national borders end in Globalization processes and what how is individuality and society embedded in the process. How much power lies in the individual of a society, or is everyone powerless, because of the increasingly process of Globalization, which seems to be nearly intangible. The role of consumers' choices could in this concern take an important part to strenghten the individual consciousnesss, and maybe even the society's.
Svea Marie Wehling
Are the concerns we have in terms of the globalisation process in accordance with the actual problems? Or do we stand in our own light and our appraisal is blurred by the fear of personal disadvantages? If so, what are the real problems we need to solve and how are we ought to identify them?
This essay is supposed to allow the reader another view on which issues the world actually has to fear and which we do fear. After outlining the importance of definitions, since globalisation and its associated terms are as diverse as the process of globalisation itself, this essay will evaluate the connection between the actual risks and experienced fears, such as the reduction of jobs, cultural conflicts and environment protection and put them into a global context. It will provide different arguments and analyses on which of these fears differ from the actual risks the modern society has to face. After examining the major concerns and risks it will refer to whom the term "society“ eventually refers and who consequently is affected by the globalisation and draw conclusions on the resulting required action steps.
This part first gives an introduction about the term “globalisation” in general, concerning the difficulty of its definition and its perimeter. Furthermore this introduction deals with the current process and the actuality of globalisation, besides the different areas that are affected by this term of globalisation and its process. After this introduction this elaboration gives an insight into the topic of security within this process of globalisation. Thus it is about how the global security is affected by this process, that is to say the chances and risk that appear for the globalised world are mentioned. After clarifying the conditions of globalisation, the security risks that result from the process will be illustrated. This leads to a short description of the necessity of solutions on national just as international level, to guarantee a safe and stable living all over the world. This elaboration terminates with a conclusion that should make clear the difficulty of achieving global security and safety, and the unpredictable effects and consequences of security arrangements.
There are a lot of different ways to create energy, but because of the limited capabilities and the growing ozone hole, it is important to use sustainable energy. On one hand the ozone hole gets bigger because of the globalisation, flying by plane, using cars etc., on the other hand the globalisation can help US to get new systems of to use energy and to get all the materials for it. But the global warming and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere brings extreme weather events and rising sea levels (Curtis, Fred: Climate, Peak Oil, and Globalization: Contradictions of Natural Capital), just to name some of the consequences. The other problem are the limited capabilities. Oil is getting low, the oil price already rose from $20 per barrel in 2001 to $70 per barrel in 2006 (Curtis, Fred: Climate, Peak Oil, and Globalization: Contradictions of Natural Capital). In the future we will either run out of oil or it it will be too expensive that only rich people can use it. Also because of the ecologically harmful power stations electricity will be getting more expensive, and eventually run out (www.handelsblatt.com (14.11.2009)). Especially because of the globalisation, the transportation and the high standard of living we will use more and more electricity capabilities. That is why it is important to think about other ways to produce energy. One form of sustainable energy is the sun. Solar energy is one of the sustainable methods. There are also more techniques like wind power or using water for getting energy. The following paragraph will be written about solar energy; what it is, how it works and what the advantages and disadvantages are. In the beginning I briefly will describe in short form the technical way of this system, afterwards there will be a short term, then briefly talk about some other forms of sustainable energy systems. Following this I will move on to the advantages and the disadvantages of using solar energy. And at the end there will be written a conclusion this way of using sustainable energy. In the 18th century the solar cell was invented by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, A successful naturalist, who came up with the solar cell, similar to the one which is used today. In the 19th century Augustin Mouchot was the first person who used the convex mirror. This was the first step to refining this technique. It was also the first time that the energy of the sun was used for electricity (www.ht-handelsagentur.de (14.11.2009)).
Solar energy means the energy which is produced by atomic fusion. We now know that the energy of the sun does not decrease, it stays constant. Parts of the energy get reflected and other components of the energy get absorbed and are changed into heat energy. And the remainder gets through down to the earth. How much of the sun energy reaches the earth depends on the humidity, the cloudiness and the length of the way the sunbeams needs to put back. The energy of the sun is five thousand times more then the energy mankind needs. This already is one good reason to use the energy of the sun.
Curtis, Fred: Climate, Peak Oil, and Globalization: Contradictions of Natural Capital
Globalization is a very far-reaching concept. It is defined differently by people around the world. People from the area of policy define it differently than people from the industry. Fact is, therefore, that globalization affects everyone. Globalization brings benefits and disadvantages for everyone. Mezricky described globalization as "an uncontrolled process." (Václav Mezricky. The nature of globalization. Global actors and driving forces. 2006). An important step towards globalization was the regulation for the conversion of other currencies to the dollar from 1971-1973. Companies now could trade easier over the borders of their countries to other countries. It emerged multinational corporations. (Václav Mezricky. The nature of globalization. Global actors and driving forces. 2006). International organizations were founded. Furthermore the loosening of borders between countries could be seen in the context of globalization. Almost free travel was now offered internationally. The developing of communication technology makes it possible to exchange information rapidly. Globalization involves four types of activities: development, stretching, intensification, speeding up and growing Extensity. These four areas influence each other, the developments in communication technology influence the expansion or the growing Extensity of global organizations. (Held, McGrew, 2008, p. 2) If, according to Held affect all areas of globalization, then it could be that globalization also brings disadvantages.
Globalization in its current speed overwhelms the adaptability of many people. In the western industrialized countries, many workers are facing unemployment or have been affected. For older workers, it is difficult to adapt to the new situation. A whole generation of workers thus falls into a deep crisis.
In developing countries, many people feel that they can’t prosper. In those countries, although come to something, but this is unevenly distributed. There are extremely rich man on the other hand, many very poor people living in slums. In the coming years we will recognize where the globalization will lead us. Economic crisis will bring us to other ways that we previously believed not to go.
Capital markets are a place where different financial instruments are listed. This trade has to be regulated. Primarily companies and governments can influence these markets. Governments are donors of framework conditions while companies choose where their money will be invested. Especially companies are gaining in importance. But capital markets can’t be regulated by national states because they operate globally. For this reason a supranational institution is required.
- Helena Radoňová
As we live around "fast-flows" society, people interact, intersect, intermingle and intermix with each other. International policy portrays the world as a relationship within. Each member of this global village knows each other business just like the next-door neighbor. Each country has their own agenda to empower and develop the wealth of their inhabitant. The social nature of human as the inhabitant of country is to interact. The country as well needs to interact one another. The relationship between countries could be done through politic, economic, military, and educational type of interaction. Economic relationship between countries has been extensively increased due to the world financial condition. Every country tries out any opportunity to relate to international scheme in order to increase or maintain its welfare. Welfare affects people as a production factor. When one couldn’t taste welfare in their own area, he will seek out in the neighbor’s area. This phenomena lead to mobility of labor. Labor moves to other country to pursue better life on the other hand neglecting its own country welfare. The small quantity of labor mobility reduces the country welfare.
The article will discuss the main reasons for and the consequences of massive food shortage.