Students:Shaping globalization: migration in times of globalization
Developed countries use migration to gain advantage in the globalized economy. But the developing countries can also benefit from the migration. In the history people always been made their way to live in another place as where they are born and this not required globalization. The fact that they do it in such large numbers as in the second half of the nineteenth and the beginning of this century, may simply be related to the number of people on this planet has grown so rapidly. The percentage of migrants in the world's population increased only slightly from 2.1% (1975) to 2.9% (2000). (Philip L. Martin: Migration and development: Towards sustainable solutions, International Institute for Labour Studies DP/153/2004.) Earlier dungeons many people need to escape from their homeland because of war and famine to create a new livelihood. Today the developed countries use the migration more than one way to take an competitive advantage in the globalized economy. It is more and more important for developing countries to win over selectively immigrants who can make an important contribution to the development of its own economy.
The battle for the best brains
A study from 2004 drawn up by the OECD, which summarizes the results of the census of 2000, for the first time supplies comprehensive statistics on the number of migrants, including those whose level of training. Following table shows the percentage of inhabitants of the degree of the home australian and the immigrants. (OECD, Counting Immigrants and Expatriates in OECD Countries: A new Perspective, 2004, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/27/5/33868740.pdf.)
country - percentage of degrees of the inhabitants - percentage of degrees of the immigrants
Australia ------------ 42,9% ------------ 38,6%
Kanada ----------- 38 % ---------- 31,5%
USA ------------- 25,9% ------------ 26,9%
The figures show that the typical immigration countries promoting a selective immigration. They derive a significant economic gain. Germany for example have a hard time to participate in this competition. To find qualified employees abroad and lead them to germany. The half-hearted attempt at recruiting IT professionals, the so-called green card, came at a time when the IT boom was almost over. The terms of this program were hardly compare with those of the American green card. The duration of work permit restrictions on work permits for family members reflected that it was not for such a program comes to proving a boon to immigrants how can this possibly be seen with civil war refugees or asylum seekers, but to participate in a contest the most attractive location will decide for themselves.
Developing and transition countries on the losing side?
If even Germany seems to stand in this fight for the best brains tend to lose out, how should then developing countries consist in this fight?
In fact, as already mentioned above, the OECD statistics show steadily increased the migration of highly educated specifically from the developing and transition countries. This emigration takes place more frequently in connection with the study. Thus, the number of students from developing countries increased dramatically in the U.S.. In the year 1999 were awarded after a study by the National Academy of Science for more than 50% of all doctoral scholarships in engineering to foreigners. Most of them had previously studied at one of the elite universities in their home country. Many of these students stay in the USA after her graduation This migration has always been viewed as a loss of the developing countries. Already in the sixties and seventies, the so-called "brain drain" was a topic of countless conferences. The call for administrative restrictions or financial compensation remained utterly inconsequential. The right of emigration is now regarded as a human right. The demographic development and the growing awareness of almost all the economic advantages of a selective immigration policy let's assume that the pull factors will be more and more important.
The Diaspora as a resource in globalization.
The experience of many Asian countries with the emigration of highly skilled workers, rather suggests, to focus more on how to use the migrant communities for the development of countries. In fact, the "diaspora" (this designation has been introduced for the migrant communities), especially in a globalized world, gained an important significance for the countries of origin. This phenomenon was demonstrated for the first time very clearly on the migration of IT professionals from India, mainly in the United States. First of all, almost 500 000 IT professionals left the country, mostly to the United States, often borrowed at first only in the short term for certain programming tasks, the so-called "body-shopping", then often as employees of IT companies and later more often than independent contractors . Very soon, these entrepreneurs discovered that certain types of work in India were cheaper and established companies in India. Some of them even returned. They were, whether in the U.S. or in India, living beachheads in this rapidly growing industry. Recently a study demonstrated that the Indian diaspora in California recently has played the central role for the development of the IT industry in India. Uwe Hunger: Indian IT-Entrepreneurs in the US and in India. (An Illustration of the „Brain Gain Hypothesis“, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, August 2004, S. 99–109.) Similar trends were also seen in other Southeast Asian countries, especially in South Korea, Taiwan, but also in China.
This example shows that it is not always the case that immigration will damage the development of a country. The loss may begin occurring human resources more than offset by activities of diaspora communities, whether through the return of skilled entrepreneurs or professionals, either through the commercial activities of contractors who would remain in the host country, whether through scientific or charitable activities.
Thus, these positive effects occur in particular in the commercial sector, however, some conditions must be met in the home:
• A good education system that produces an excess amount of our own needs for training graduates;
• A migration of the highly skilled in areas that are suitable for the creation of business opportunities between the participating countries;
• Economic and political environment which gives a sufficiently good investment climate;
• The continuation of the personal ties of migrants to their homeland.
If these conditions are met, then the Diaspora community is predestined to be an engine for economic development of their country of origin.
Developed countries use migration to gain advantage in the globalized economy. But the developing countries can also benefit from the migration, if the diaspora transfers money or know-how in their home home country. Emigration of creative minds from developing countries brings rather disadvantages in the short term but in the medium and long term enormous benefits. These advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in the text and explained chances of emigration. Examples will be given which shows us the chances. India is one developing country which shows us many benefits of migration in part of globalization. Not only industrialized countries enjoy the benefits of migration, in return, the developing countries, too. The battle for the best brains were won by the industrialized countries but years later the developing countries get back more and more advantages.
Saskia Sassen: Migranten, Siedler, Flüchtlinge. Von der Massenauswanderung zur Festung Europa, Frankfurt am Main 1996.
OECD, Counting Immigrants and Expatriates in OECD Countries: A new Perspective, 2004, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/27/5/33868740.pdf
Anna Lee Saxenian: Silicon Valley’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Juni 1999, http://ppic120www.ppic.org/main/results.asp
Dieter Oberndörfer: Warum brauchen Industrieländer die Zuwanderung von Hochqualifizierten?, http://www2.gtz.de/migration-and-development/konferenz-1/deutsch/referate.htm
Diaspora: Robin Cohen: Diasporas and the Nation-State: From Victims to Challengers, International Affairs, Juli 1996, S. 507–520.
Saurabh Srivastava: The migration of highly skilled: brain drain or engine for economic development?, http://www2.gtz.de/migration-and-development/konferenz-1/deutsch/vortraege.htm
Uwe Hunger: Indian IT-Entrepreneurs in the US and in India. An Illustration of the „Brain Gain Hypothesis“, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, August 2004, S. 99–109
Philip L. Martin: Migration and development: Towards sustainable solutions, International Institute for Labour Studies DP/153/2004