Students:2009/2010 student themes
Please write your introductory paragraph directly under your name.
Your work (collaborative in later stages ) will be focused on the Globalisation process and risks associated with it (not only global risks, but also those that you face in your everyday life). So the introductory paragraph should introduce the theme of Global risk society somehow; it could anticipate your future theme if you have already decided what it will be. Please keep in mind that you should coordinate your work so that the final product is homogenous; those who will take the lead in choosing the theme will have an advantage!
After you have decided on the title of your essay, you can write it in brackets: ]] [[ in reverse order (My new theme XY). Thus, you will start a new page - and you can continue your writing there.
List of possible sub-themes for the Global Risk Society theme
List of questions for Jana Hybášková - Top 10 selection
Jule Kathinka Plawitzki
The text focuses on biodiversity as a global environmental risk. To understand the correlation between loss of biodiversity and globalization a short definition about biodiversity in general is given, furthermore causes for reduction are presented. In a third step these causes are related to globalization. Finally there is a prospect if even a further globalization is necessary to contain the reduction of biodiversity as an example and global environmental risks in general.
The following article deals with the term "global village" and the critical approaches to it. Does the globalization of media cause homogenization and standardization concerning products, experiences and lifestyle of generations? Do we have to give up our individualism for a collective identity? The text also gives an overview of the influence of media in a globalized world and how they are used for manipulation and marketing. One last point of this essay is the question of global or local media. How can the media be globalized when not everybody has the same conditions concerning the access to the Internet or the television?
Globalisation is the worldwide disappearance of ideological, political, scientifical and technological boundaries. It is not an entirely new event but a historical process, which however has gained enormous momentum in the last decades. Within this process peoples and nations come closer together, enabling a free flow of capital and economic exchange. Billions of people around the world can profit from this with the chances of improved working and living conditions. Emerging countries like India, China and Brazil are made into economic centers of gravity as a consequence, relinquishing their old image as cheap producers and transforming it into that of serious industrial providers.
The free flow of capital and an absence of an economic „global order“, however, makes problems inevitable as the current economic crisis is showing clearly. Also the old economic giants in Europe and the US are challenged by an additional and ever more skilled and educated workforce of 2 billion people that before had lived beside the world economy, creating a „War for Talents“ and defying the shrinking populations of the western world.
The inevitable interdependence and cause of severe concern created by the process of globalisation, however, becomes highly apparent in the field of energy supply. The International Energy Agency (IEA) suggests that with a world population of then 8,5 million people energy demand will double by 2030 ([]). In 2005 the Hamburger Weltwirtschaftsinstitut (HWI) presented a study by which the future demand for oil grows by 1.7 % annually and the demand for gas by a whopping 2.4% a year should global economies retain their growth rates. Whether or not the reserve ranges in that study (42 and 63 years respectively) are accurate it is probable that both will lose their profitability within this century.
This presents the world with wide ranging questions and challenges on which paths are to be taken in order to guarantee a secure and cheap energy supply. The following article will analyse some current trends, especially in the field of electricity production, and the question on how the growing demand will be met.
Globalisation contains a lot of different fields. One part is the process of word wide interaction and linking up between people, companies and nations. The interaction increases especially in the field of politic, economy, culture, environment and communication. This interaction effects individuals in the same way as institutions ore societies.
A big topic of globalisation is the environment, the sustainable management of limited recourses. I will focus especially on the supply of water. The secure supply of portable water of high quality is the condition for life on earth. Politicians as Boutros Ghali prophesised the war on water already in 1885. Others believe that in the 21.century water will takeover the interest that oil had the 20. century.
Big parts of the world population still do not have access to healthy water. This water shortage will highly increase in the next years and wound stay a regional problem of developing countries. Water covers 75 % of the surface of the earth, but just 2,6 % of this water is freshwater and 0,6 % is usable, the rest is contained in the ice of glaciers or part of the eternal snow. The water deposit on earth is unchangeable but the regeneration cycle of water takes several of hundreds of years. Through water pollution and other reasons as highly usage of water in the agriculture sector and the unequal distribution of goods in general this water shortage will be one of the biggest problems to be solved in the next years, to secure human living. With complex and costly methods attempts are made to compensate the approaching shortage. For example plans are made for river-linking in Spain, or the construction of pipelines from Canada to California.
An other problem is the privatisation of the public water supply, caused through financial straits. Private investors have the chance to control the water supply and gain power over the formation of price and this will cause the widen of the gap between rich and poor. The process of privatisation in the last years always was a process of loosing codetermination of the population too. The interests of big companies were more important than civil rights.
To solve the upcoming water problem the whole world has to work together to pursuit the goal of a world wide and equal water supply.
Loewe,Jens: Das Wasser Syndikat.Dornach 2007 http://www.unesco.org/water/
Quite a controversial topic frequently discussed in last years is the position of Islam and Islamists within the European society. The fact is that Europe has not yet been able to deal with this issue in a satisfactory manner and its importance is rising. The number of European inhabitants who profess this religion has been increasing rapidly. Public opinion remains divided on this trend. Considerable part of the citizens and even some intellectuals describe this situation in a very negative way, they find accepting these different people as spoiling our culture and speak about a danger or threat. With regard to the cultural heritage some voices talk about, professor Sami Zemni stresses the necessity of defining our European identity, thus what exactly is to be preserved, since a specific demarcating is very difficult. In the terms of their non-supporters, Islamists mostly deserve to be isolated (most of the Muslim immigrants live at the edges of cities in ghettos) because they are neither able nor willing to assimilate. The question is whether this lack of mutual understanding is entirely their fault. If they do not imitate our habits and mentality, they are often perceived as less developed intruders without any right to make demands and should not be treated as equal. Because of this xenophobia and prejudice, immigrants feel deceived and come back to their roots disappointed, disgusted and less disposed to adapt than ever before. All the declared ideals of religious liberty, respect for all human beings etc. look like a shifty lie to them. That is why many academics speak of a great challenge for our democracy emphasizing the need of integration and tolerance. According to Savage: “Even though they (Muslims) may be third-generation citizens, they often are not viewed as fellow citizens by the general public but are still identified as foreigners and immigrants instead”. As we will see, the presence of Islamists in our continent is not new at all. What is new is just the fear spreading around, since their number is growing and the real integration is not progressing very well. To an uncommitted observer, it may seem as if democracy in our countries was a privilege for a certain group of chosen-ones. But then it would not be a democracy any more. On the grounds of several scholars' works I will try to outline where the problem is and its possible causes.
An interesting topic to discuss is the concept of multicultural Europe. The adjective multicultural can be heard in media often because many politics and state representatives have it on their list of frequently used words. No one wants to be considered xenophobic and hostile. But some people misunderstand this. “Multiculturalism is much more than the de facto acknowledgement of the living together of people with different religious traditions, ethnic loyalties or national affiliations. Multiculturalism is the basis of a (supra-national) societal project with universal aspirations.” (Zemni 1). Simply let the members of another cultures live in a country and ignore them is not enough. It means to include them into the process of modifying and changing our culture (which would happen without them anyway) and let them be a part of our culture. If this works properly it can be tremendously enriching. Despite the issue is understood correctly by many Europeans, it remains a theoretical concept, a phrase from politics and it doesn't work in praxis. The fact is that tolerance in an average citizen has boundaries. It is not urgent to erase them completely, just shift it so that it does not remain irrational. A spark of intolerance and fear of the unbeknown smoulders in everyone and it is easy to turn it into a flame by calling: “They are taking your jobs! They live in houses that could be yours!” If they do not violate the laws and are a contribution to the society they deserve the same treatment as any of the locals. The truth to be told, the immigrants may be often deprived from a chance to contribute, so their situation is worse. What is also important is to apply the universal concept on a concrete situation. “It is nearly impossible to say anything on 'Islam in Europe' without taking into account the structural context of the debate. (...) Simultaneously, this context is, in a period of globalisation, breaking out of the geographical boundaries of the European Union. With the advent of Islamist movements in the Arab world and the synchronicity of Muslim demands in Europe, several observers have concluded that we are witnessing a worldwide 'resurgence of Islam'.” (Zemni 1-2) Europeans should understand that an Islamist does not equal an extremist. The problem is that mainly the loudest and most extreme voices are being heard, but these are only a few percent of the whole and they are by no means typical representatives. Therefore the loudest voice is usually not the one that should be listened to. In a similar manner, if you say that Christians burn the Harry Potter books, it is not true. It was only one preacher on the other side of the world. The problem is that almost everyone knows about that and those who do not think it through carefully could easily generalize and make a snap judgement about all the confessors. Some cherish a paranoid scheme that if an extremist leader commanded, the European Muslims would come out of their homes ready to fulfil his orders. When you think it over it is a nonsense. “It is misleading to see these (Muslim) communities as unified, single and homogenous entities that are trying to secure their rightful place within a seemingly monolithic European Union. (...) In overemphasizing communities, and in our case Muslim communities, the danger subsides that some sort of 'communitarian cage' is built in which all Muslims have to fit. The thousand and one ways to be a Muslim can clearly be integrated in the framework of a pluralistic multicultural project as long as the communication between persons and within communities and institutions is based on mutual understanding that bypasses feelings of superiority.” (Zemni 13). Another subject to be mentioned is the conflict in France considering Muslim girls wearing a scarf on their heads at schools. Realizing there has been said a lot about this issue, let me try to be brief. Despite our not knowing the local mood and situation, the core question might be whether they demand wearing it because of some respect to their traditions and endorsing to it or to separate themselves from the rest. While the first mentioned does not seem so wrong, the second actually contradicts the endeavours to integrate. Nevertheless, it seems undesirable to wear a veil that covers a face in contact with a non-Muslim. However it may appear a violating personal liberty, hiding one's face would be violating the right for a decent communication of the other.
Islam, European Identity and the Limits of Multiculturalism, Sami Zemni; citováno 1.12.2009; dostupný z WWW: <http://diana.ugent.be/menarg/publications/multicul.pdf>
Europe and Islam: Crescent Waxing, Cultures Clashing, Timothy Savage; citováno 1.12.2009; dostupný z WWW: <http://thewashingtonquarterly.com/04summer/docs/04summer_savage.pdf>
How is the individual to be defined in a globalized world? The article discusses the role of society and how determinates are changing. Where do national borders end in Globalization processes and what how is individuality and society embedded in the process. How much power lies in the individual of a society, or is everyone powerless, because of the increasingly process of Globalization, which seems to be nearly intangible. The role of consumers' choices could in this concern take an important part to strenghten the individual consciousnesss, and maybe even the society's.
Svea Marie Wehling
Globalisation is a concept nowadays every single one of us has heard of. However, not many people deal with the subject of globalisation. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for instance refers to this mistakable term as “a process of closer economic integration of global markets“ () and although quite simple it can be regarded as a reasoned definition for an organisation, which deals primarily with economical issues. Nevertheless, this definition is too limited in order to stress the complexity and duality of the process of globalisation. The German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology adds, that “this development is being driven forward by world-wide information networks and communication technologies“ (), while the U.S. Department of Commerce focusses on the “potential to affect each other more quickly and to a higher degree than ever before“ (Globalization and Minority-owned Businesses in the United States: Assessment and Prospects (2003), p. 4). Hence, misunderstandings and information of dubious origin lead ([])
This part gives a short introduction about the term globalisation in general, about its current process and actuality, besides the different areas that are affected by this term of globalisation and its process. After this introduction this part gives an insight into the topic of security within the process of globalisation. Thus it is about how the global security is affected by this process that is to say the chances and the risk that appear for the global world
There are a lot of different ways to create energy, but because of the limited capabilities and the growing ozone hole, it is important to use sustainable energy. On one hand the ozone hole gets bigger because of the globalisation, flying by plane, using cars etc., on the other hand the globalisation can help US to get new systems of to use energy and to get all the materials for it. But the global warming and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere brings extreme weather events and rising sea levels (Curtis, Fred: Climate, Peak Oil, and Globalization: Contradictions of Natural Capital), just to name some of the consequences. The other problem are the limited capabilities. Oil is getting low, the oil price already rose from $20 per barrel in 2001 to $70 per barrel in 2006 (Curtis, Fred: Climate, Peak Oil, and Globalization: Contradictions of Natural Capital). In the future we will either run out of oil or it it will be too expensive that only rich people can use it. Also because of the ecologically harmful power stations electricity will be getting more expensive, and eventually run out (www.handelsblatt.com (14.11.2009)). Especially because of the globalisation, the transportation and the high standard of living we will use more and more electricity capabilities. That is why it is important to think about other ways to produce energy. One form of sustainable energy is the sun. Solar energy is one of the sustainable methods. There are also more techniques like wind power or using water for getting energy. The following paragraph will be written about solar energy; what it is, how it works and what the advantages and disadvantages are. In the beginning I briefly will describe in short form the technical way of this system, afterwards there will be a short term, then briefly talk about some other forms of sustainable energy systems. Following this I will move on to the advantages and the disadvantages of using solar energy. And at the end there will be written a conclusion this way of using sustainable energy. In the 18th century the solar cell was invented by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, A successful naturalist, who came up with the solar cell, similar to the one which is used today. In the 19th century Augustin Mouchot was the first person who used the convex mirror. This was the first step to refining this technique. It was also the first time that the energy of the sun was used for electricity (www.ht-handelsagentur.de (14.11.2009)).
Solar energy means the energy which is produced by atomic fusion. We now know that the energy of the sun does not decrease, it stays constant. Parts of the energy get reflected and other components of the energy get absorbed and are changed into heat energy. And the remainder gets through down to the earth. How much of the sun energy reaches the earth depends on the humidity, the cloudiness and the length of the way the sunbeams needs to put back. The energy of the sun is five thousand times more then the energy mankind needs. This already is one good reason to use the energy of the sun.
Curtis, Fred: Climate, Peak Oil, and Globalization: Contradictions of Natural Capital
Globalization is a very far-reaching concept. It is defined differently by people around the world. People from the area of policy define it differently than people from the industry. Fact is, therefore, that globalization affects everyone. Globalization brings benefits and disadvantages for everyone. Mezricky described globalization as "an uncontrolled process." (Václav Mezricky. The nature of globalization. Global actors and driving forces. 2006). An important step towards globalization was the regulation for the conversion of other currencies to the dollar from 1971-1973. Companies now could trade easier over the borders of their countries to other countries. It emerged multinational corporations. (Václav Mezricky. The nature of globalization. Global actors and driving forces. 2006). International organizations were founded. Furthermore the loosening of borders between countries could be seen in the context of globalization. Almost free travel was now offered internationally. The developing of communication technology makes it possible to exchange information rapidly. Globalization involves four types of activities: development, stretching, intensification, speeding up and growing Extensity. These four areas influence each other, the developments in communication technology influence the expansion or the growing Extensity of global organizations. (Held, McGrew, 2008, p. 2) If, according to Held affect all areas of globalization, then it could be that globalization also brings disadvantages.
Globalization in its current speed overwhelms the adaptability of many people. In the western industrialized countries, many workers are facing unemployment or have been affected. For older workers, it is difficult to adapt to the new situation. A whole generation of workers thus falls into a deep crisis.
In developing countries, many people feel that they can’t prosper. In those countries, although come to something, but this is unevenly distributed. There are extremely rich man on the other hand, many very poor people living in slums. In the coming years we will recognize where the globalization will lead us. Economic crisis will bring us to other ways that we previously believed not to go.
- Helena Radoňová
As we live around "fast-flows" society, people interact, intersect, intermingle and intermix with each other. International policy portrays the world as a relationship within. Each member of this global village knows each other business just like the next-door neighbor. Each country has their own agenda to empower and develop the wealth of their inhabitant. The social nature of human as the inhabitant of country is to interact. The country as well needs to interact one another. The relationship between countries could be done through politic, economic, military, and educational type of interaction. Economic relationship between countries has been extensively increased due to the world financial condition. Every country tries out any opportunity to relate to international scheme in order to increase or maintain its welfare. Welfare affects people as a production factor. When one couldn’t taste welfare in their own area, he will seek out in the neighbor’s area. This phenomena lead to mobility of labor. Labor moves to other country to pursue better life on the other hand neglecting its own country welfare. The small quantity of labor mobility reduces the country welfare.
Societies all over the globe are faced with the effects of a process referred to as Globalization. This process amplifies the worldwide interconnectedness. Thus former boundaries disappear and local actions and developments easily can have consequences for other regions and even the whole world. The world literally gets smaller.
Nature, Nations, societies and individuals are affected by globalization, but the allocation of its benefits is highly unequal. A large number of the world’s population still lives in poverty. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) claims in its world hunger report 2009 that 1.02 billion people are undernourished worldwide . The food shortage especially concerns most Asian countries and sub-Saharan Africa .
Already in the late fifties the first Federal Chancellor of Germany, Konrad Adenauer, has indicated most of the main challenges for societies nowadays:
“Our enemies of today are not other nations. Our enemies of today are poverty, ignorance, disease and discrimination. What we need is co-operation based on the idea that the entire world is one human family. Ignorance and lack of understanding among Asian, African and Western nations is the greatest danger we are facing today” (Konrad Adenauer, 1957).
The following article will discuss the main reasons for and the consequences of massive food shortage. Then will give a short outlook on the agricultural production in the future.