Migration and community formation under conditions of globalisation: Difference between revisions
No edit summary
|(One intermediate revision by the same user not shown)|
|Line 104:||Line 104:|
[[Instead of a conclusion: back to baby-farming? full text]]
[[Instead of a conclusion: back to baby-farming? full text]]
Latest revision as of 12:45, 30 August 2017
This article discusses the conceptual issues of migration research before focusing on two major issues: • Likely trends in migration in future • Perspectives for migrant settlement and consequences for multi-cultural societies
International migration as a systemic factor in globalisation
Migrations have always been key factors in colonialism, industrialization and nation-building. During the 1990s, there was a shift in perception concerning migration but this not does represent a major change in phenomenon. Migration as a systemic element in the process of globalization is a new form of a systemic role which has taken different forms since the formation of global networks of capitalist markets in the 16th century.
Understanding migration and community formation is crucial for anticipating future developments. Until now, policy-makers and analysts have failed to anticipate the current state of societies – nobody foresaw the development of multi-cultural societies in settler nations of the New World or Western Europe. Policy-makers have perceived migration as something that can be easily controlled by states, for the perceived benefit of the state, but have not taken into account human agency.
Perspectives for international migration
The volume and significance of migration
According to a UN study, between 2 and 4 percent of the world’s population are migrants, but the distribution of these immigrants is of course not evenly spread. In absolute terms, most migrants are living in less-developed countries, but in relative terms developed countries are more affected by migration as migrants form a higher percent of the population in developed countries than in developing countries. Migrants tend to migrate from rural communities, which often has a sever impact on those communities (family life and labour shortage) to urban communities, where there are likely to be more chances of employment and assistance from other migrants.
Causes of migration
There are several approaches to understanding the causes of migration:
Demographic explanations stress the importance of declining fertility rates and labour shortages in Europe and increasing fertility rates and unemployment in developing countries which creates a “push and pull” factor.
In the free market model of neo-classical economics, individuals from less developed countries migrate to developed countries for better paid job opportunities. According to this model, this movement results in convergence of wage levels, although in reality, the wage levels are moving further apart.
The “economics of migration” approach emphasizes the decision-making process of families who invest in the education of one child in order to ensure that (usually) he is in a position to move abroad to find work in a stable economy and send money home to support the family.
Historical-institutional approaches point to the role of large institutions in initiating and shaping migration flows, such as national governments initiating “guestworker” systems, where migrants are encouraged to fill a local labour need without being encouraged to stay and bring their families.
Sociological explanations of migration emphasise the importance of cultural and social capital in encouraging and facilitating migration: cultural capital being the increased awareness among people of developing countries about other societies and the opportunities they provide, social capital being the social connections needed to migrate to a place where other members of the community have already migrated.
While a full understanding of migration would need to take into account all these approaches, yet another factor is the global migration industry, comprised of legal and illegal entities and networks which all have an interest in encouraging migration.
Types of migration
In the last 50 years, there have been three major types of migration: permanent settlement migration, temporary labour migration and refugee movement. Highly skilled workers are encouraged to migrate through government programmes, but also most global cities rely on low-skilled labour, provided by asylum seekers and irregular migrants. The term refugees is not sufficient to represent all those forced to leave their homes: forced migration is a more inclusive term which refers to asylum seekers, internally displaced persons, post-conflict returnees, people displaced by environmental and natural disasters, and those displaced by development projects (eg. Infrastructure development, dam construction etc.) More patterns of migration are developing under conditions of globalization:
- Astronaut phenomena: families move from developing to developed countries while breadwinner works in the original home country
- Return migration: a growing trend, migrants return and effect social, cultural and economic change.
- Retirement migration: people from wealthier countries retire to countries with low living costs and pleasant weather.
Perspectives fro multicultural societies and transnational communities
To what extent will migrant settlement and community formation change under conditions of globalization? What will be the effects on social relations, culture, identity and politics in receiving countries? How will states seek to incorporate minorities and manage diversity? To answer these questions, we need to look at the different ways migrants have been incorporated into receiving societies over the last 50 years.
Modes of Incorporation: the Western Society Convergence
There are three main approaches to migrant incorporation:
- Assimilation: encouraging immigrants to learn language and adopt the social and cultural practices of the receiving community
- Differential exclusion: migrants are temporarily integrated into some sub-systems e.g. labour market, but excluded from others e.g. political participation or obtaining citizenship.
Both of these models were designed to ensure that immigrant culture does not have any cultural impact on the receiving community. However, in Western societies, this was not possible.
- Multi-culturalism was introduced as an alternative immigration policy initially in Canada, Australia. Multiculturalism accepts that homogenous and mono-cultural natioan-states are not possible, and that social equality should be strived for, and diverse communities protected form discrimination. Therefore, difference is controlled while assuming that loyalty of citizens will be to a single nation-state.
Migrant incorporation under conditions of globalization: the rise of transnational communities
Globalization reduces the power of the nation-state. Increasing mobility, especially through communication and cheap travel allows people to challenge the idea that a person belongs to one nation-state. Transnational communities, or diaspora, have existed for centuries, for instance the Jews, African slaves in the New World, Greek and Arab trading groups etc. but the number of such communities is increasing. This is facilitated by time space compression, partly technological in character, partly social/cultural. If the loyalty of transational community members is not to a particular nation-state, then what does loyalty relate to? These communities are sometimes portrayed as cosmopolitan hybrids, and sometimes as having a feeling of identification with other people of the same ethnic group, wherever they are.
Transnational communities and global cities
It is suggested that immigrants find their sense of identity primarily at the level of the city, that there is a sense of sub-national belonging.
Significance of transnational communities for national identity
Governments of emigration countries often try to retain a strong link between the immigrants and the homeland, as this can bring economic, cultural and political benefits. This can be advantageous for migrants – in societies where they experience racism and marginalization, mobilizing community solidarity and transnational links can be a source of strength. Multicultural, cosmopolitan communities also negotiate cross-border links and bring cultural and economic openness and opportunities.
Transnational communities and citizenship
If flows are replacing spaces as the site of economic and social organization, citizenship can no longer be attached to a single nation-state. About half the world’s countries now recognize dual citizenship: emigration countries benefit from the remittances, technology transfer and political support ensured by emigrants. Immigration countries benefit form this arrangement in terms of improving social relations and integration of minorities, preventing social disadvantage being connected to ethnicity.
Instead of conclusion: back to baby-farming?
The expression “baby-farming” was coined by satirical Irish clergyman Jonathan Swift as a solution to the problems faced by the Irish while suffering under English colonization: as a way to earn a living, it was ironically proposed that the only way for the Irish to make a living was to farm babies to sell to the English for consumption. As developed countries over the past decades have increasingly relied on imported labour, human exports have been sent to the factories of industrial countries (rather than the dinner table). A new transnational baby-farming can be proposed as a scenario of global migration in the future. Based on current trends, the future scenario possibly entails the following:
- Continuning drop in fertility rates will ensure the need for importing labour to compensate shrinking labour forces.
- Areas of Asia, Africa and Latin America will continue to be excluded from mainstream global economy, and while fertility rates increase, people will need to migrate to find work.
- Surveillance technology will make movement of people even harder and more dangerous than at present, resulting in the increasing deaths of those trying to reach developed countries to find work.
- Contract labour systems and exploitation of illegal workers and asylum seekers will continue and increase to ensure that there are enough unskilled workers available for fulfilling 3-D jobs (dirty, demanding and dangerous)
- Education policies in less developed countries will focus on providing skilled labour for rich countries
- Some families, if fitting the economic and cultural profile considered desireable by immigration countries, will be allowed to settle and replenish the aging population.
This radical scenario might not come to pass, but certainly the time of nation states with homogenous identities is past.
- Stephen Castles: International Migration Review, Vol. 36, No. 4, Host Societies and the Reception of Immigrants: Institutions, Markets and Policies. (Winter, 2002), pp. 1143-1168.
- Adepoju, A. 2000 “Issues and Recent Trends in International Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa,” International Social Science Journal, No. 165:383—394.
- Aguilar,EVJ. 1 999 “The Triumph of Instrumental Citizenship? Migrations, Identities and the Nation-state in Southeast Asia,” Asian Studies Review, 23(3):307—336.
- Alba, R. and V Nee 1997 “Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of lmmigration,” International Migration Review, 31(4):826—874.
- Aleinikoff, T. A. and D. Klusmeyer, eds. 2000 From Migrants to Citizens: Membership in Changing World Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
- Ang, I. 2000 “Beyond Transnational Nationalism: Questioning Chinese Diasporas in the Global City” International Conference on Transnational Communities in the Asia-Pacific Region. Singapore: Centre for Advanced Studies, National University of Singapore and Transnational Communities Program ESRC UK.
- Arango, J. 2000 “Explaining Migration: A Critical View,” International Social Science Journal,
- Archdeacon, T. 1983 “Becoming American: An Ethnic History.” New York: The Free Press.
- Baubock, R., ed. 1994 From Aliens to Citizens: Redefining the Status oflmmigrants in Europe. Aldershot: Avebury
- Bauböck, R. and J. Rundell, eds. 1998 Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity Citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate.
- Bauman, Z. 1998 Globalization: the Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity
- Castells, M. 1996 The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwells.
- Castles, S. 2000a “The Impacts of Emigration on Countries of Origin.” In Local Dynamics in an Era of Globalization. Ed. S. Yusuf, W. Wu and S. Evenett, New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.
- 2000b “International Migration at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century: Global Trends and Issues,” International Social Science Journal No. 165:269—281.
- 2000c Migration as a Factor in Social Transformation in East Asia. Princeton, NJ: Center for Migration and Development, Princeton Uniersity
- 2000d “The Myth of the Controllability of Difference: Labour Migration, Transnational Corn- munities and State Strategies in East Asia.” International Conference on Transnational Communities in the Asia Pacific Region. Singapore: Centre for Advanced Studies Nation- al University of Singapore.
- 2000e “Thirty Years of Research on Migration and Multicultural Societies.” In Globalization and Ethnicity: From Migrant Worker to Transnational Citizen. Ed. S. Castles. London: Sage.
- 1999 “International Migration and the Global Agenda: Reflections on the 1998 UN Technical Symposium,” International Migration, 37(1):5—19.
- 1995 “How Nation-states Respond to Immigration and Ethnic Diversity” New Community, 21 (3):293—308.
- Castles, S., H. Booth and T. Wallace 1984 Here for Good: Western Europe’s New Ethnic Minorities. London: Pluto Press.
- Castles, S. and A. Davidson 2000 Citizenship and Migration: Globalisation and the Politics of Belonging. London: Macmillan.
- Castles, S. and M. J. Miller 1998 The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modem World (2nd edition). London: Macmillan.
- Cohen, R. 1997 Global Diasporas: An Introduction. London: UCL Press.
1987 The New Helots: Migrants in the International Division of Labour. Aldershot: Avebury Faist, T. 2000 “Transnationalization in International Migration: Implications for the Study of Citizenship and Culture.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(2):189—222.
- Findlay, A. M. 1995 “Skilled Transients: The Invisible Phenomenon.” In The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Ed. R. Cohen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Gidin, T. 1995 The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America is Wracked by Culture Wars. New York Henry Holt.
- Gordon, M. 1964 Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. New York:
Oxford University Press.
- Hammar, T. 1990 Democracy and the Nation-State: Aliens, Denizens and Citizens in a World of lnternational Migration. Aldershot: Avebury
- Held, D., A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt and J. Perraton 1999 Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity.
- Hirano, K., S. Castles and P. Brownlee, eds. 2000 Asian Migration Settlement: Focus on Japan (Special Issue of Asian and Pacific Migration Journal). Quezon City: Scalabrini Migration Center.
- Hugo, G. 1998 “The Demographic Underpinnings of Current and Future International Migration in Asia,” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 7(1):1—25.
- Kassim, A. 1998 “The Case of a New Receiving Country in the Developing World: Malaysia” In Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development. United Nations ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All. The Hague.
- Kastoryano, R. 1996 La France, Allemagne et leurs immigrés: négocier l’identité. Paris: Armand Cohn.
- King, R,, G. Lazaridis and C. Tsardanidis, eds. 2000 Eldorado or Fortress? Migration in Southern Europe. London: Macmillan.
- Komai, H. 2000 “Immigrants in Japan.” In Asian Migration and Settlement: Focus on Japan (Special Issue of Asian and Pacific Migration Journal). Ed. K. Hirano, S. Castles and P. Brownlee, Quezon City: Scalabrini Migration Centre.
- Kondo, A. 2000 “Immigration Law and Foreign Workers in Japan.” Fukuoka: Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University
- Martin, P. L 1991 The Unfinished Story: Turkish Labour Migration to Western Europe. Geneva: International Labour Office.
- Massey, D. S., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, A. Pellegrino and J. E. Taylor 1998 Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Massey D. S., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kóuaouci, J. E. Taylor and A. Pellegrino 1993 “Theories of international Migration: A Review and Appraisal,” Population and Development Review, 19(3):431—466.
- Moch, L. P. 1995 “Moving Europeans: Historical Migration Practices in Western Europe.” In The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Ed. R. Cohen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1992 Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe Since 1650. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- Noiriel, G, 1988 Le Creuset Français: Histoire de l’immigration XIXe-XXe Siecles. Paris: Seuil.
- Pe-Pua, R., C. Mitchell, S. Castles and R. Iredale 1998 “Astronaut Families and Parachute Children: Hong Kong Immigrants in Australia.” In The Last Half Century of Chinese Overseas. Ed. E. Sinn. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- Pillai, P. 1999 “The Malaysian State’s Response to Migration,” Sojourn, 14(1):178—197.
- Portes, A., L. E. Guarnizo and P. Landolt 1999 “The Study of Transnationalism: Pitfalls and Promise ofan Emergent Research Field,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2):217—237.
- Potts, L. 1990 The World Labour Market: A History of Migration. London: Zed Books,
Salt, J. and J Clarke 2000 “International Migration in the UNECE Region: Patterns, Trends, Policies,” International Social Science Journal No. 165:313—32&
- Sassen, S 1998 The Mobility of Labour and Capital Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Sinn, E., ed. 1998 The Last Half Century of Chinese Overseas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- Skeldon, R., ed. 1994 Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- Stark, 0. 1991 The Migration of Labour. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell
- Steinberg, S. 1995 Turning Back: The Retreat from Racial Juctice in American Thought and Policy Boston: Beacon Press.
- Swift, J. 1955 “A modest proposal for preventing the children of poor people in Ireland from being a burden to their parents or country; and for making them beneficial to the public (1729).” In Irish Tracts 172&—1733. Ed. H. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Taylor, J. E. 1999 “The New Economics of Labour Migration and the Role of Remittance in the Migration Process,” International Migration, 37(1):63-88.
- Tribalat, M. 1955 Faire France: Une Enquete Sur Less immigrés et Leurs Enfants. Paris: La Découverte.
- United Nations 1998 “Report of the United Nations Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development. The Hague, Netherlands, June 29-July 3, 1998. New York: United Nations.
- UNHCR 1997 The State of the World’s Refugees 1997—98: A Humanitarian Agenda. Oxford: Oxford University Press for United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
- Vertovec, S. 1999 “Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2):445—462.
- Zappala, G. and S. Castles 2000 “Citizenship and Immigration in Australia.” In From Mgrants to Citizens: Membership in a Changing World Ed. T. A. Aleinikoff and D. Klusmeyer. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
- Zhou, M. 1997 “Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research on die New Second Generation,” International Migration Review, 31(4):975—1008.
- Zlotnik, H. 1999 “Trends of International Migration Since 1965: What Existing Data Reveal,” International Migration, 37(1):21—62.
- Zolberg, A. R., A. Suhrke and S. Aguayo 1989 Escape from Violence. New York: Oxford University Press.